In this assignment, you will be looking at medical costing. Based on your research and the attached article, prepare a 5-page summary in Microsoft Word (using the template provided) of the medical costing method discussed in the article. You must use a total of 5 additional sources. 
Provide an overview of the costing method used in the article.  Then discuss how you would change the costing method, if at all. Would you add in additional costs or remove any of the costs discussed? Why you would make those changes?  Finally, discuss how you think the article selected will help you in your future career as it relates to costing.  Provide examples to back up your ideas.
Be sure your paper and references are in proper APA format and follow the template provided. The paper MUST be written in third person. Font must be size 12, Times New Roman.Running head: TITLE GOES HERE


Title of the Paper Goes Here

Student Name
Parker University





The Abstract is an overview of the paper, written after completion. Other researchers use the Abstract to determine if your work will be useful to them. The Abstract should include the background, hypothesis or research question, methodology for data collection and analysis, the findings of your research, and conclusions. It should be between 100-150 words. This is done when the paper is complete.


Remember this part of the paper is double spaced in APA format.

The Introduction should lead readers into the topic and its importance. Introductions typically include the overall topic of the paper, the specific focus of the paper within the larger topic, the main points in the paper, the kind of paper (study, argument, critique, discussion), and the purpose.

Writing Tip:

The length of the introduction should be in proportion to the length of the paper. Also ask yourself, “With my purpose and my audience, how do I engage my readers best?” In the introduction, you set the tone of the piece, establish your voice, and demonstrate your writing style; be authentic to your purpose and your audience.

Overview of Costing Method in the Article

Enter in your ideas based on your research. You want to leave in the headings in bold for each section and add in your comments after each heading.

Changes to Costing Method and Reason for Changes

Costing Related to Future Career

Conclusions and Recommendations

The Conclusion section should summarize for the readers the topics of importance that led to your final conclusions/analysis regarding this case. You would include some specific areas of focus from your analysis to reinforce your conclusion .

Work Cited

Include complete references in proper APA format for all of the citations listed in your paper. Be sure to use the library for the required number of sources. Additional sources can be used but should be scholarly (no sites with .com endings). Present your references in alphabetical order.Waning et al. BMC Health Services Research 2010, 10:205

Open AccessR E S E A R C H A R T I C L E

© 2010 Waning et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in
any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Research articleBalancing medicine prices and business
sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs,
revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine
mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan
Brenda Waning*1,2, Jason Maddix1 and Lyne Soucy3

Background: Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but
many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in
health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting
unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction
goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services
research is needed to develop sustainable and “reasonable” medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach

Methods: We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit
rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during
establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007).

Results: Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with < US $25,000 due to governmental resource-sharing. The network operated at break-even profit, leaving little room to lower medicine prices and mark-ups. Medicine mark-ups needed for sustainability were greater than originally envisioned by network administration. In 2005, 55%, 35%, and 10% of the network's top 50 products revealed mark-ups of < 50%, 50-99% and > 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by
2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of < 50% and 50-99%, respectively; while 35% of products revealed mark-ups > 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to
244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies.

Conclusion: Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private
partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for
regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear “excessive” but are
likely necessary for pharmacy

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