Respond to 2 Peer Based on APA Guidelines.
 Work must be supported by peer-reviewed article published within 5 years.

Week 13 Discussion: Contraception
Fernando Wong
Florida National University
Advanced Pharmacology


Week 13 Discussion: Contraception


Oral contraceptive pills increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. For J.L., she has a positive family history of cardiovascular disease. Necessary tests include blood pressure and pregnancy screening. World health organization recommends that it is desirable before initiation OCP regimen to take blood pressure measurements.
For J.L, due to her history of heavy menses, the appropriate contraception would be combined oral contraceptive pills, the combined contraceptive patch, or combined injectable contraceptives (Lethaby et al., 2019). These contraception types contain two hormones: estrogen and progesterone. Combined oral contraceptive pills are a type of contraception taken orally. The regimen is a 21-day or 24-day whereby pills are taken for days, then a seven-day break during which menstruation occurs. The contraceptive patch is placed on the skin on the upper arm, lower abdomen, buttocks, or back and slowly releases hormones estrogen and progesterone to the body. The patch is used once a week and replaced with a new one. The duration of placing patches is three weeks, then a one-week break to allow for menstruation. Combined injectable contraceptives are a monthly injectable form of hormonal contraception. The shot is given intramuscularly every 28 days to 30 days. According to the World Health Organization (2016), the injection should be administered on the same day every month.
Combined hormonal contraception has multiple side effects. Side effects that warrant immediate medical care include increased blood pressure, blood clots, especially on the legs, and migraines. Pain and swelling of the legs with red or darkened skin indicate a possible blood clot formation in the vessels. This warrants urgent medical care. Increasing blood pressure causes problems for the heart and organs. High blood pressure is not a good sign for an individual with a risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (Cooper & Mahdy, 2020).
Cooper, D. B., & Mahdy, H. (2020). Oral Contraceptive Pills. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing.
Lethaby, A., Wise, M. R., Weterings, M. A., Bofill Rodriguez, M., & Brown, J. (2019). Combined hormonal contraceptives for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
World Health Organization. (2016). Selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use (3rd ed.). WHO Document Production Services.
Week 13 Discussion
Liliana Acosta
Advanced Pharmacology

           Contraceptive counseling helps improve the quality of life by preventing unwanted pregnancies. Through the counseling process, a nurse is able to identify different relational tasks and communication aspects that help them meet the client’s needs. There are different approaches that are adopted in

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