Discuss and identify leader traits and attributes that are most beneficial in implementing the best decisions in an organization. 
Explain the differences in charismatic and transformational leadership and how both leadership styles impact organizational effectiveness.  Please note how these leadership styles affect implementing new innovative technologies.
Review table 8.1 in the reading this week, note the work characteristics and the traditional versus high-performance focus, note which focus is best for strategic decisions and which is best for operational decisions.  Please explain.

Please refer to Journal article attached.
Word Count: 300 APA7

At least one scholarly article reference

2016, 69, 159–198


The George Washington University

University of Maryland

Our research integrates theoretical perspectives related to distributed
leadership in geographically dispersed teams with empowering lead-
ership theory to build a multilevel model of virtual collaboration and
performance in dispersed teams. We test the model with procurement
teams in a major multinational corporation. Our results show a signifi-
cant cross-level effect of empowering team leadership, such that under
conditions of high empowering team leadership, a team member’s virtual
teamwork situational judgment (VT-SJ) is positively and significantly
associated with his or her virtual collaboration behaviors and also indi-
rectly with his or her individual performance in the team. At the team
level, our findings also suggest that the impact of empowering leader-
ship on team members’ aggregate virtual collaboration, and indirectly on
team performance, increases at higher levels of team dispersion. These
findings shed important light on the role of team leadership in foster-
ing effective collaboration and performance of geographically dispersed
virtual teams.

To support major strategic initiatives in areas such as globalization,
outsourcing, and strategic partnering, organizations are increasingly turn-
ing to the use of geographically dispersed teams in which members rely
on technology to collaborate virtually in the team. Dispersed or virtual
teams offer many potential advantages (Martins, Gilson, & Maynard,
2004; Rosen, Furst, & Blackburn, 2006), including the ability to have the
most technically qualified individuals work on tasks regardless of loca-
tion while also offering opportunities for sizable cost savings resulting
from reduced travel. With such potential benefits, it is small wonder that
organizations have an increasing interest in the utilization of such teams
(Martins et al., 2004; Rosen et al., 2006). At the same time, reports point to
special challenges individuals face in their collaborations with dispersed

Correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to N. Sharon Hill, The
George Washington University, School of Business, 315F Funger Hall, 2201 G Street, NW,
Washington, DC 20052; nshill@gwu.edu.

C© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. doi: 10.1111/peps.12108



team members (for reviews, see Axtell, Fleck, & Turner, 2004; Martins
et al., 2004; O’Leary & Cummings, 2007). For example, research shows
that geographic dispersion may impede effective information sharing, co-
ordination, problem solving, building trust, and constructively resolving
conflicts with others on the team (Cramton, 2001; Cramton & Webber,
2004; Hill, Bartol, Tesluk, & Langa, 2009; Hinds & Mortensen, 2005;
Jarvenpaa & Leidner, 1999; Joshi, Lazarova, & Liao, 2009; O’Leary &
Cummings, 2007).

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