The focus for this reflection is on the impact of religion and health in middle adulthood. The news is reporting declining attendance at religious institutions in America, with the highest percentages of non attendance coming from Gen Z (followed by millennials).  The book talks about the benefit of religion as it relates to physical health.  For this reflection, tell me, summarize the health benefits mentioned in the text and tell if you think the decline in attendance by Gen Z and millennials, will correlate with those health benefits as those groups age. 



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John W. Santrock

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Chapter 13

Physical and Cognitive
Development in Middle


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Chapter Outline

• The nature of middle adulthood

• Physical development

• Cognitive development

• Careers, work, and leisure

• Religion, spirituality, and meaning in life






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The Nature of Middle Adulthood 1

• Changing midlife

• Defining middle adulthood

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The Nature of Middle Adulthood 2

Changing midlife

• As adults become older, their
age identity is younger than
their chronological age.

• An increasing percentage of
the population is made up of
middle-aged and older adults.

• “Rectangularization” of the
age distribution

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The Nature of Middle Adulthood 3

Defining middle adulthood

• Middle adulthood: 40 to 45 years of age to 60 to 65 years of age

• Declining physical skills and increasing responsibility

• Awareness of the young-old polarity

• Transmitting something meaningful to the next generation

• Reaching and maintaining career satisfaction






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The Nature of Middle Adulthood 4

Defining middle adulthood

• Gains and losses and biological and sociocultural factors balance each

• Late midlife (55 to 65) is likely to be characterized by

• Death of a parent

• Last child leaving the parental home

• Becoming a grandparent

• Preparation for and actual retirement

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Physical Development 1

• Physical changes

• Health, disease, stress, and control

• Mortality rates

• Sexuality

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Physical Development 2

Physical changes

• Visible signs

• Skin wrinkles and sags

• Age spots appear

• Hair thins and grays

• Nails thicken and become more brittle

• Teeth yellow

• Height and weight

• Individuals lose height and gain weight.

• Being overweight is a critical health problem.






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Physical Development 3

Strength, joints, and bones

• Sarcopenia: age-related loss of
muscle mass and strength

• Cushions for bone movement
become less efficient.

• Leading to joint stiffness and
more difficulty in movement

• Progressive bone loss

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Physical Development 4

Vision and hearing

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